Research and Composition

Students shall submit at least two papers of 1500 words in length minimum, one expository in nature and one which expresses a position or argument; both of which should include a list of works consulted and/or cited. Acceptable submissions may include college level research papers, published articles, or any papers submitted for other requirements in any of ADF’s Study Programs. Papers must demonstrate thorough research techniques, employ reliable sources, demonstrate a clear writing style, be well organized and make use of Standard English syntax, usage and grammar.

Paper 1 – A Balanced Life

Paper 2 – The Effect of Bias and reasoning on Moral Thought

 

A Balanced Life

Nature does not recognize good and evil, Nature only recognizes balance and imbalance.

I do not profess to be an expert or an adept in the field of balancing one’s life or existence. However I am observant and I do read a lot, perform research on topics of interest and practice by implementation what I learn. My suggestions, of necessity, will be broad in nature but can be easily added to or clarified with a little research.

Mankind, with their supposedly higher reasoning skills, rationalizes, categorizes and inflicts judgments on what is perceived to be of moral value within their particular culture. U.S. citizens especially have a tendency to believe that their morés and moral values that they think work in their culture are the same ones that should be practiced and enforced worldwide, hence the term “the Ugly American” and its usage overseas. Not that the U.S. is the only country that portrays this attitude: most of the “civilized” countries and cultures of the world also exhibit this conviction albeit to a lesser degree.

It is an unfortunate set of circumstances that causes this arrogance of members of a culture to develop this air of superiority because it crosses over into several other spheres of cultural significance. One such realm is that of Nature. While many in the western civilized world blithely go their merry way using Nature’s resources, condescendingly pitying those in the third world countries for their poverty, their lack of education and poor living conditions, the western civilizations seem to be completely oblivious to the attunement that these individuals have with Nature.

This intimacy with all things natural is worth more than most college educations, of higher value to life than accumulating vast sums of money and more beneficial than a vulgar display of affluence mansion. These ‘poor’ and ‘ignorant’ people are blessed with more than affluence by their simple existence that is a life of harmony and balance with Nature than their pompous western civilized counterparts can begin to comprehend. When one lives in synchronization and equilibrium with the Earth, then that person becomes intuitively aware of the subtle nuances that occur on a day to day, hour to hour and even minute to minute occasion.

There are many who will scoff at the notion that anything is worth more than a college education and in some circumstances they may be correct. However book knowledge, which the majority of college education is, profits a person nothing of lasting value without the practical knowledge to enhance what is academically imbibed. It is a very distressing commentary on Western civilization that so much emphasis and value has been placed on attaining a college education in order to compete for wealth and stature over the decades. There is nothing wrong with attaining knowledge but, as in everything, there needs be a balance of skill and learning and too often to obtain one’s goal, sacrifices that are of great importance are made. History has proved this with Western Civilization. As the people become more educated, many of them sacrifice their former love of Nature and the Earth for their love of comfort and ease.

In our desire for modern conveniences we have squandered and forsaken so much that the Earth and Nature can provide for us in return for giving simple acknowledgement and respect to them. Too many people sneer at those who labor to provide those conveniences that the ‘immediate gratification’ society demands in their rush for wealth. Those who provide the fruits and vegetables, the meat, fish and fowl for the rest of the population are deeply aware of the mutual commitment made by their families and by Nature.  They are also very aware of the delicate balance between Nature and man unlike so many in the urban areas today.

To give an example of how delicate the balance in Nature is and how easily upset it can be, one only need to pay attention to the news which thrives on catastrophes around the world. Are these disasters any worse or more horrendous than they were a decade ago? Possibly, but they seem so much more so by the speed of communication that is transforming the world at an ever increasing pace.

How many folk venture out into the wild ill prepared to cope with the obstacles and trials that they will encounter? Nature provides a solution for each impediment encountered in the ‘wild’. For instance, wherever poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans,) poison oak (Toxicodendron diversilobum– Pacific and Toxicodendron pubescens– Atlantic) or stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) grows, the antidote, lambs ear  (Stachys), horsetail (Equisetopsida), leaf of dock (Rumex), Jewelweed, (Impatiens capensis and Impatiens pallida), the underside of a fern (the spores), are also found nearby. (Fetrow) (Stuart)

But how does one acquire this knowledge that in the times of our ancestors was often viewed as magical when it applied to healing? Those natural remedies known to our ancestors were passed on by word of mouth from practitioner to apprentice. Medicine men would likely have been central figures in the tribal system, because of their medical knowledge and because they could seemingly contact the gods. Their religious and medical training were, necessarily, passed down orally. (Healing)Medicine men (also witch-doctors, shamans) maintained the health of their tribe by gathering and distributing herbs, performing minor surgical procedures, providing medical advice, and supernatural treatments such as charms, spells, and amulets to ward off evil spirits. (Ackenecht, 13)

The odds of finding someone willing to teach you what they know about Nature and living in harmony with it are greater now than in previous years. Thankfully, we are turning back to the “old ways” as the realization of the damage we have inflicted upon our environment becomes more obvious, even to some of the most obtuse of our race. Ár nDraíocht Féin (ADF) Dedicant Manual, Part Four: Attunement to Nature & The Kindred, provides a great source of ideas and methods to gain the insight necessary to find harmony and attunement with one’s surroundings. “We can go to the woods, and absorb the patterns and forms of the wild. We can become aware of the natural places even in our own cities and suburbs. We can begin re-enchanting the landscape of our homes – our wells and pools, our crossroads and hilltops. All of that begins by getting out of our living-rooms and into the natural world.” (ADF, 39)

ADF Naturalist Guild is also another resource that isn’t accessed enough. Members of this Guild have gone a step further than many people and the completion of their study program brings one so much closer to their immediate environment than can be imagined. Although they do not have an ‘official’ reading list, the members have provided a suggestion of material that is helpful to those who venture out of their comfort zone and want to put action into their words.

  • The Soul Unearthed: Celebrating Wildness and Personal Renewal Through Nature – edited by Cass Adams
  • Sacred Places: How the Living Earth Seeks our Friendship – by James A. Swan
  • Animals in Celtic Life and Myth – by Miranda Green
  • O Mother Sun! A New View of the Cosmic Feminine – by Patricia Monaghan
  • How to Shit in the Woods: An Environmentally Sound Approach to a Lost Art – by Kathleen Meyer
  • Noah’s Garden – by Sara Stein
  • Thinking Like a Mountain – by John Seed, et al.
  • A Sand County Almanac – by Aldo Leopold

It will not be of great benefit to an individual living in the western states of the U.S.A. to study in depth about the wildlife in the Eastern states much less the British Isles or New Zealand or the Philippines. Your own immediate neighborhood and region is what you should be concentrating on at first. Once you have mastered this small area, if one ever can become a master with Nature, then one becomes like the ripples in a pool spreading out from that central loci.

Becoming more familiar and aware of your own local environment is the first step in an interesting and eventful journey that will draw you into the many concerns facing us today regarding environmental issues. Where does your water come from? What steps are necessary to prevent contaminants reaching your tap? What is in your area that is a major source of pollution? What happens with your trash?  Can you have a garden, no matter how small, to ease the strain of commercial farming? Every small thing that you can do will bring you more in tune with Nature, no matter how infinitesimal it may seem. One of the greatest proponents of living a green life, Ed Begley Jr., has said many times on his television show ‘Living With Ed’ that the way to start is with what you can do immediately, then let it expand and grow. Sage advice that works remarkably well and costs the individual very little financially!

One thing that we can all do to help is to keep our areas clean. I’m not talking necessarily about trash and garbage that uncaring folk throw on the ground but more neatness and cleanliness around our micro environment. This was a factor that was dramatically reinforced to me recently. I have a favored area on my property that I use for meditation and ritual. I have maintained what I deemed to be a clean area by removing any trash that appeared on the wind. The area was somewhat overgrown and less than desirable from my own perspective. I had plans to trim and thin out the growth that was encroaching on the area I used. I was fortunate to have assistance from a neighbor and the forest service with a shredding machine. The difference it my next ritual and meditation was almost indescribable. I was impressed that the Kindred were in favor of what had transpired and that my efforts to make their area respectable were appreciated.

I did not realizing at the time I was working on my area that I was also drawing closer to the spirits of Nature and providing a more welcoming site for them to visit. “The work of Druidry is about building relationships between mortals and the Spirits. We seek to reach out to the Spirits whether of our land, or of our folk.” (ADF, 41) One can achieve this by a dedicated effort of meditation and trance. It doesn’t have to take place in the middle of the forest, it can happen in your own yard, a neighborhood park, or if inclement weather is occuring then it can even happen indoors, although this latter should be the last resort in my opinion. When one is starting out, it is of great benefit to go back to resources and see how those fonts of knowledge suggest one go about finding the resolution desired. One such a source is the ADF dedicant Manual – I would venture to guess that it rarely gets opened after the Dedicant Path is completed. This manual is an invaluable foundation for our Druidry practice.

The best chefs in the world are generally as uneducated in vegetable and fruit pairings for meat, fish and fowl as the rural housewife is to creating fondue, foie gras or pâté. This is because one of the simplest lessons is either overlooked or ignored in culinary schools: that a simple observance of what the fowl, fish or animals eats is the perfect natural pairing to accompany that meat item in a meal. Rural housewives know this and generally apply it because they know that Nature provides for them.

There are a plethora of beneficial and informative sites on the World Wide Web regarding the methodology of vegetable growing for the home enthusiast. There is certainly no need today to try and recreate the wheel and learn by trial and error as our ancestors did. While learning by trial and error may be a great and illuminating experiment it could lead to some frustration and wasted effort, especially if attempted on a large scale. One does not have to be an experienced gardener, nor have large tracts of land, to plant a vegetable garden. In fact there are many small gardens that produce well on patios and decks. Whatever the size of the garden that is grown there are the same guidelines that apply. (No Dig)

  1. Sunlight is essential for active growth. Your garden will need at least five hours a day unless you are planting leafy vegetables.
  2. Vegetables need water to grow. One of the best systems and one that works well on patios and decks is a drip system.
  3. Check prevailing winds and protect your garden from harsh winds. Cold winds will stunt growth and hot winds will dry the soil and harm the plants, strong winds will break the plants. If necessary provide a windbreak of slatted timber or other material.
  4. Crop rotation will benefit vegetable crops in two ways: first, it will prevent the build-up of soil-borne pests and diseases; second, it will allow for the replenishment and efficient use of soil nutrients.
  5. Spend some time planning what you want to grow in your climate taking into account the sun, shade, wind and shelter of your plots.

Once you have taken into account the above factors consider how much time you want to devote each week to your garden. This factor alone may well be the determining size of your efforts. Whatever size your garden is you will enjoy the fruits of your labors.

There are many ways that we can draw closer to the Spirits and the Earth. The biggest obstacle to success in these endeavors is ourselves. I am fortunate now to have land around me in a rural setting, but when I was in the city I still found space at my home. None of us is in a perfect place but by making do with what we have, by doing what we can as we can, then we bring ourselves more in line step-by-step, with the desired goal of living a balanced life in harmony with Nature and the Kindred.

Bibliography

Ackenecht, Erwin Heinz.  A Short History of Medicine. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD. 1982 Print

Ár nDraíocht Féin (ADF) Dedicant Manual, ADF Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 2009. Print

 

Ár nDraíocht Féin (ADF) Naturalists Guild. Web. 12/16/2011 http://www.adf.org/members/guilds/naturalists/reading.html

 

Fetrow, Charles W. and Juan R. Avila. The Complete Guide to Herbal Medicines. Simon and Schuster.  New York, NY. 2000. Print

Healing Secrets of Aboriginal Bush Medicine. Web. 12/16/2011 http://www.bri.net.au/medicine.html

No Dig Vegetable Garden. Web. 1/20/2012  http://www.no-dig-vegetablegarden.com/index.html

Stuart, Malcolm. Encyclopedia Of Herbs & Herbalism. Crescent. Hills, MN. 1987. Print

 

 

The Effect of Bias and Reasoning on Moral Thought

My thoughts on this subject have been garnered by years of experience. I am in the sunset years of my life and I feel the need to express matters so that those who are younger than I may avoid some of the same mistakes that I made. In the grand scheme of things I am inconsequential and know far less than I would like to. I can be, and most often am, opinionated but I have learned to judge my audience and know when to remain silent. The result is that I often ‘preach to the choir” but those are the individuals who are most likely to learn from experiential offerings of seasoned teachers. There tends to be less argumentation occurring also when following that form.

As I was working on the Critical Thinking questions for my study program I encountered this topic and was immediately struck by the need to expand upon the required 100 word minimum answer that I was writing. I saw the topic as being one that was more in-depth and perhaps more profound than I was able to cover for my study program essay answer and this became even more abundantly clear as I tried to trim my thoughts and expression on paper.

A couple of months ago a very dear and close friend that I had not seen for a couple of years contacted me and needless to say I was heartened at renewing our friendship. We had shared good times, laughs, and even serious discussions together. When we first met nearly 20 years ago, he was the Program Director and I was the Chaplin at a Boy Scout camp near Yellowstone National Park. The gods could not have created a more beautiful setting for high adventure hiking and communion. At the time we both were members of an established orthodox religion, which both of us have since left behind to our individual greater benefit.

Upon the restoration of our friendship, my friend told me that he needed to apologize to me. I was of course extremely puzzled since we had shared confidences on many an occasion in the past. Upon seeking the reason for the apology, he confided in me that he was in a relationship with another man. I enquired of him if this relationship made him a different person than the one I had previously known and his reply registered within my mind as one of peace and happiness for him. He went on to explain that he was different now because he had more joy and a brighter outlook in his life. For me as his friend, I could see the difference in his eyes, in his step, in the many characteristics that friends instantly identify with each other. I was so glad for him that I instantly gave him a hug which was not a reaction that he had expected. When I queried him on why he was surprised he informed me that by far and away the majority of people that we had both known over the years had rejected him and his partner outright and had even denigrated their loving relationship. I was appalled at this behavior from people that I had respected previously, and whose judgment I had valued. As we discussed their reaction it became apparent that their ‘bias’ was both religious and moral and was interfering with their friendship of this individual. They did not take the time to see how much better his life had become but rather shunned him as if he was carrying a deadly disease. I felt a great deal of sorrow for those individuals because their prejudice, a term that I identify with bias, was causing them to miss out on so much that this man had to offer.

I related this personal story to set the groundwork for what I am about to present in this essay so that the reader may have a foundation upon which to lay the premises that I will postulate and indeed try to verify clearly. At the basis of every exposition is the presenter’s need for vindication of their premises thus proving, hopefully within the readers mind also, the entire presented argument and conclusive results.

Let us begin with an examination of the various categories of bias that we encounter in our day to day experience:

  • Religion
  • Race
  • Class
  • Phobia
  • Education
  • Experience
  • Politics

These are not in any particular order of preference but in the order that they came to mind at the time of writing. I do not presume to place a hierarchal order to these because each individual will find one makes an impression more than another based upon their life and experience. To me, they are all a form of bias that clouds judgment and increases prejudice.

Religion:

Religion is a strong motivator for the attitudes and moral codes of many individuals. In Judaism the Torah spells out a manner of healthful life and a path that YHVH, or the more common known name outside of the Judaic faith of Elohim, has prescribed. Christianity has a plethora of Bible versions or translations upon which they refer to for guidance and moral values. Islam has the Qur’an which Muslims believe provides divine guidance and moral direction for mankind. Hindus make use of the Shruti, which contains the important Vedas, and the Smritis, which contain the other Hindu texts. Unlike other religions mentioned here, Buddhism does not have a central text that is universally referred to by all traditions although some scholars have referred to the Vinaya Pitaka and the first four Nikayas of the Sutta Pitaka as the common core of all Buddhist traditions. The main concept with Buddhism is to follow the teachings of Buddha in your life with Karma serving as the law of cause and effect. There are countless more religions and texts that could be enumerated here but the reader can get the idea that there are documents which serve the ‘needs’ of their devotees in every religious order.

Through experience, something which we all get whether we intend to or not, we learn that any point can be proven to suit our needs by what is commonly referred to as a scripture rail split i.e. taking parts of doctrine out of context to validate our actions.  An example of this from the Bible would be, “But fornication, and all uncleanness, or covetousness, let it not be named among you…” (KJ Bible-Ephesians 5:3) According to this text, the Christian God either does not want anyone to procreate, or to want something they do not yet have but want, or to get dirty by manual labor. Obviously the ambiguity of this interpretation can be seen yet this is what so many Christians will do to prove their stance on matters. Many have not taken the trouble to read their Bible in entirety but simply accept what is measured out to them from the pulpit during the religious ritual they attend.

Another problem that surfaces regarding orthodox mainstream religions is that there is very little encouragement to study or even learn about religions, practices or motivations outside of their own prescribed doctrine. This whole attitude permeates so many facets of life now that if one steps outside of the ‘straight and narrow path to God’ as it were, then you must surely be in league with the Devil. As an enlightened society we shudder at the primitive understandings and behaviors of earlier generations with their fear of witches yet this is very much akin to what is being practiced today under the guise of enlightened religion. Surely reason tells us that if your religion is the ‘true’ one as so many proclaim today in their proselytizing efforts, then examining other religions will only assure the student of the ‘true’ path. Forbidding the expansion of religious knowledge is a path to ignorance and trouble. Every adult knows that telling a child not to take the candy sitting in a bowl on the table just encourages the child to accept the challenge as soon as the adult’s eyes are averted. This is the same with religion and unless the individual is brainwashed, a term synonymous with indoctrinated, then examination of other beliefs will proceed and enlightenment will be achieved.

Race:

This is another area that has flared back into prominence of late. I grew up among the Polynesian people and learned so much from them. I associated closely with the Aboriginal people of Australia, the Melanesians and some Micronesians. I have acquaintances from India, Africa and Europe. This does not mean that I am an expert on race and relations, I most emphatically am not. However I have learned to treat people as human beings regardless of their ethnic background. If a person is offensive, it is because of their environment and upbringing, not because of their race. I have my own prejudices and biases in this regard. I find that I am intolerant of individuals who refuse to see beyond the color of an individual’s skin tone and treat everyone of that ethnic background the same. A human being is a member of the same species that I belong to. I could just as easily be of the same ethnicity as any of the people with whom I choose to associate. The reason I am not is for another discussion far from this topic. I disassociate myself from as many Caucasians as I do from black, brown or yellow. I do this because I find their companies to be unharmonious with my life and at my age see no need to disrupt my balance with people who are not likely to change.

“Human skin color is primarily due to melanin, it ranges from skin almost black in appearance to white with a pinkish tinge due to blood vessels underneath. Variations in skin color are mainly of genetic origin and are associated with sunlight but the evolutionary causes are not completely certain, the leading explanation is they are adaptations to sunlight intensities which produce vitamin D deficiency or ultraviolet light damage to folic acid.” (Jablonski 107) This lends credence to the theory that skin coloration is predicated by the climatic conditions in the genetic area of a person’s birth. Over the years of living in a specific clime, the ethnic group’s coloration will adjust to the elements to protect the body.

Class:

Oddly enough this is an area that while having somewhat hard demarcations is often bypassed subconsciously, especially in the Western countries of the world. Bias here is often from what we term the upper class who ‘look down’ upon those less fortunate then themselves. In some countries of the world this also ties in closely with the religious beliefs and morés, such as found in India where history has influenced beliefs. “Within Indian culture, whether in the north or the south, Hindu or Muslim, urban or village, virtually all things, people, and groups of people are ranked according to various essential qualities.” (Caste) For those unfamiliar with this system the quoted article provides some very good insight into the complexities and nuances involved. “In India Caste is a term, which is used to specify a group of people having a specific social rank and dates back to 1200 BCE. The Indian term for caste is jati, and generally designates a group that can vary in size from a handful to many thousands. There are thousands of jatis each with its own rules and customs. The various jatis are traditionally arranged in hierarchical order and fit into one of the four basic varnas the (Sanskrit word for “colors”).

The varna of Brahmans, commonly identified with priests and the learned class
The varna of Kshatriyas, associated with rulers and warriors including    property owners.
The varna of Vaishyas, associated with commercial livelihoods (i.e. traders)
The varna of Shudras, the servile laborers

The Untouchables occupy a place that is not clearly defined by boundaries and is outside of the varna scheme”. (History)

In most Western countries the division of class is more along monetary lines but quite often it can be found within education levels also. I was very surprised as an educator to see how often my colleagues dismissed the importance of those who did not have a college education. I had higher expectations of individuals who were            in a field supposedly to provide a benefit to individuals seeking knowledge. Even within the ranks of college instructors, my immediate colleagues, there was a class distinction between those with doctorates and those without. You can imagine the gulf that existed then between those with doctorates and those who had ‘only’ graduated from high school. I found even a distinction between high school grads and GED recipients and non-graduated students.

Phobia:

A legitimate medical distinction exists in this area, but it appears to be too often used as an excuse to harbor fears related to other areas of bias such as evidenced with religion. There is yet, at least to my somewhat limited knowledge, any proof that homosexuality is contagious. So the irrational phobia of contact with a lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender individual causing a person to change their sexual orientation is nothing short of ludicrous in my opinion. While I am heterosexual, some of the greatest people I have been privileged to associate with and call friends have been members of the aforementioned sexual persuasions.

Another phobia I have noticed during my years as an educator is that of people with some physical or mental handicap. Again, these fears that by association with those individuals one will mysteriously and miraculously develop the same ailment are irrational. Yet by simply sitting in a public setting and observing people going about their business one can see avoidance of individuals who appear to be ‘less than normal’ although I am not sure of what exact definition of normal should be employed at this juncture.

Politics:

Now we come to the great divider that often is extremely contentious, and will always it seems remain so. Wars have been fought over this throughout history and again we often find religion as an integral part of the political scene.

In a presidential election year in the United States, and a leader change of the various other titles in different countries, one can observe how controversial the opinions of party defenders can be. Rarely will any individual change their political opinion in favor of another. Yet because someone does not agree with one party affiliation does that make the individual less of a person? Does their belief in a party platform make them someone that is undesirable?  Article 19 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 2200A (XXI)
of 16 December 1966 with entry into force 23 March 1976, in accordance with Article 49, the United Nations clearly states:

“1. Everyone shall have the right to hold opinions without interference.

2. Everyone shall have the right to freedom of expression; this right shall include freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any other media of his choice.

3. The exercise of the rights provided for in paragraph 2 of this article carries with it special duties and responsibilities. It may therefore be subject to certain restrictions, but these shall only be such as are provided by law and are necessary:

(a) For respect of the rights or reputations of others;

(b) For the protection of national security or of public order (ordre public), or of public

health or morals.” (International)

Freedom of speech in the United States is protected by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution and by many state constitutions. Despite the exceptions, of which there are numerous, the legal protections of the First Amendment are some of the broadest of any industrialized nation, and remain a critical, and occasionally controversial, component of American jurisprudence. Often these rights are flagrantly violated with appropriate consequences. Just as often these rights are used as a shield for abusing the moral and common sense values that make up a ‘civilized’ nation.

Politics is a strange bedfellow indeed, and causes great rifts between people. It is all too easy to use as a cover for deeper and more insidious motives for bias. Unfortunately, nothing much will change because people tend to accept whatever they choose to fit into their realm of belief. This is what makes the world and the countries in the world so very intriguing.

Experience:

Nothing is as great a game changer as experience for those with an open mind and a searching heart. We all have experiences that shape our lives and influence our thoughts. Those of us who have progressed further in chronological life generally have more and have often changed our priorities and opinions. This is a natural and logical course. How we choose to allow those experiences to influence us and affect how we treat other people is a choice.

Experience shapes our bias and our reaction to circumstances, although we may deny it. If we step back and take a moment to reflect, we should at least be honest enough with ourselves to admit how much experience intrudes on our interaction with others, their actions, their thoughts, and their beliefs.

Do I believe for one moment that this essay will greatly change anything or anyone? No, but at least it might give pause for consideration. The Nine Virtues of ADF are:

Wisdom                                   Piety                                        Vision

Hospitality                              Moderation                             Fertility

Courage                                   Integrity                                  Perseverance

 

These should open our minds, our hearts, and guide our actions in relation to our fellow human beings. Are they easy to adhere to in our daily lives? Absolutely not, but it is by making a sincere effort that we overcome our bias in thought and reasoning and make ourselves better humans. If a goal is worth achieving it rarely is easy, but the struggle to implement these virtues in our lives and make them an integral part of all that we stand for is worth the effort.

If nothing else, the construction of this essay has further educated and enlightened me, and given me a way vent to my distracted observations.

 

 

Bibliography

 

Bill of Rights. Cornell University Law School. Web. 1/18/2012. http://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/billofrights

History of the Caste System in India. Web. 1/15/2012 http://www.mtholyoke.edu/~epandit/page2.html

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. Web. 1/18/2012. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/ccpr.htm

Jablonski, N. and G. Chaplin. “Colloquium paper: human skin pigmentation as an adaptation to UV radiation”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Supplement 2. 2010

King James Bible, Harper Collins, UK, Print. 1986

Tanakh, Jewish Publication Society, Philadelphia, PA. Print. 1985

The Caste System in India. Web. 1/15/2012 http://www.indianchild.com/caste_system_in_india.htm

 

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